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Language / Terminology



These references are by no means comprehensive.  They reference sites which I have found particularly useful.  Please drop me a note if you have other recommendations.








Cyrillic Alphabet



Church Records



Magyar/Hungary Census Records


Given Names


Common Place-Name Terminology


Feudal Terminology - often found in Land, Tax and Census Records

  • INQUILINUS / ZSELLER / JELERI - GenealogyRO Group - a dictionary of terminology

  • Pre-1848 Social Status in the Villages of Present-day Slovakia, Vladimir Bohinc - Terminology and description.  Very good.

  • Hungary's Ethnic German Farmers around 1800 Part Two: Their Economy - Felix Game - A "sleeper" of a title, includes robust descriptions of feudal social roles: colonus, cotter, zseller, subinquilinus, inquilinus as well as other less-discussed positions: priest, teacher, nightwatchman.  Includes measurements and their conversions and acreage measurments.  Very good.   FUTURE TO BE ADDED


Translation Services

  • e-transcriptum claims to provide free genealogy translation services in over 70 languages.  I have sent them some material in Russian and will advise on the outcome (March, 2005).  Outcome: They never responded, even after numerous Inquiries (December, 2005).  May 2007 - website seems dead (BT).

Language Tools


Feminine Surnames

In the Modern-Day Slovak Language

English-speakers often confuse the feminine form of a surname as a distinct and separate family name (surname).  In the Slovak Language, the feminine form of a surname usually is modified with a suffix.  When searching for Slovak surnames, ensure that both forms are checked.  As a general rule, names on forms written after 1918 use the Slovak style, while those prior most often used Magyar (Hungarian) language rules.

Masculine Feminine
Jan Tarkulič Maria Tarkuličová
Jan Genský Maria Genská
Jan Suchy Maria Sucha

Thanks to Delphi Forum members Adam ("Red Prince")

 and Michal Sura for their feminine surname contributions.


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Last Update: 15 November 2020                                                    Copyright © 2003-2021, Bill Tarkulich